Why is it dangerous to destroy the process of globalization?

Let us first try to define globalization: Globalization or globalization is the process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments worldwide. As a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, globalization is considered by some as a form of capitalist expansion, which entails the integration of local and national economies into a global, unregulated market economy. Globalization has grown due to advances in transportation and communication technology. With the increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade, ideas, and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that is associated with social and cultural aspects.

However, conflicts and diplomacy are also large parts of the history of globalization, and modern globalization.

Nevertheless, in my opinion the globalization has many advantages. Working on a global scale makes economical dependencies, which will not been destroyed without good reasons. It makes people much more thinking what they can solve on a diplomatic way, before thinking on violence.

Contact with different cultures takes away fear and prejudices. Accepting of other cultures and other behaviors will avoid aggression against other cultures.

Globalization has then also to take some responsibilities. Poor countries and poor economies cannot long-term survive in a globalized world. We see at present time, that not only the violence in the world are causing refuges, but also the economical misbalance between countries is a cause for refuges.

Which strategy is necessary, to allow a worldwide globalization:

  1. Economical differences in difference countries have to be narrowed
  2. Countries should be managed by politicians, who are not corrupted, caring about the people and are developing their knowledge in respect of social and technical developments worldwide.
  3. Democratic countries, which change from time to time the politicians, are more stable than dictatorships.
  4. WTO (world trade organization) rules should be kept by all countries and customs duties should be developed to a minimum (it should never destroy business between countries)
  5. Global problems like climate change or ethnic violence should be solved globally; for example by an empowered UN (united nation organization).

Difficult to imagine? I can imagine and I am not the only one. Already in 1971 wrote John Lennon his song “imagine”. Let us only look to the beginning of this text:

Imagine there’s no heaven

It’s easy if you try

No hell below us

Above us only sky

Imagine all the people living for today

Imagine there’s no countries

It isn’t hard to do

Nothing to kill or die for

And no religion too

Imagine all the people living life in peace, you

You may say I’m a dreamer

But I’m not the only one

I hope some day you’ll join us

And the world will be as one

In this short text are already the main hurdles described, which take us away from a real functioning globalization. Power, resentment, egoism, fear and envy are the main characteristics hindering to develop globalization further.

Mullahs in Iran, Trump as a President in US, UK leaving the European Union, the regime in China and Russia and, and. This are all barriers on the way to successful globalization.

It is not the demand that rich countries should give to the poor countries, we should go the way that rich countries develop poor countries. If the rich countries are not doing so, they are increasing the risk that refuges, who have not anymore enough to eat in their home country, will come to the rich countries.

Not to go for a globalized world, makes the world more dangerous. Walls and fences are not helping. If people have only the decision to die by hunger or by a cannon ball, they will take the risk and go for the small hope, to reach a richer country.  We have to develop a globalized world, to make it safer for everybody. We can try to make fences and walls, but all this is only a temporary solution.

And again the electrical energy in Germany is monopolised

RWE and Eon, the anyhow dominating electrical energy supplier in Germany made an exchange of their businesses. With this the dominanz becomes even more visible. In the picture below is visible, in which areas the electrical power network is monopolised to EON (red areas).

On the other side RWE will become a dominating company for electrical energy production. This was the situation, the German government tried to avoid. In Germany, were the energy cost are the highest in Europe, the monopolisation of the energy production and the energy supply will not guide to improving conditions.

Wit the introduction of renewable energy it was targeted, to have multible player in the game. Everybody could participate on solarparks and wind power plants or even build some solar panels on their own roof. Everybody was crying, this big investment nowbody can do, so it is better, if more player can participate.

Imedeatly, Eon and RWE recognised, they will lose their confortable position, they were looking for possibilities to gain their monopolistical status back. We can see on the picture below that they have been already successful and the politicians are alowing them this behavior.

If powersupply is seen as a strategical element, the network could be taken by the government. It is questionable that a monopolist will make a cost target driven business.

This business exchange is the worst step I have ever experianced. Open calculation was always requiered from the energy supplier, but in the end Garmany has the highest electrical power prices in Germany.

Not to stop this, is losing an opportunity to improve. It is the nail on the coffin for developing powerful renewable energy and to get a Powersupply, which could be done only by a Blockchain installation and having so the highes competition we can imagen.

In the energy politic, the mistakes done by the politicions is so huge that Germany will suffer from this for long years.

And even if we go thru the list of failures:

  1. Killing the German solar industry by working long time with to high feed-in tarifs and than reducing to fast.
  2. Now the German windpower plant producers will die.
  3. Giving the network to a monopolist
  4. overslept the broadband expansion
  5. Need to much time to give licences for 5G

I can not imagine that this damage of energie supply in Germany can be even more worsen.

All the projects, which have something to do with economicle behavior or strategical decisions have been failed during the last years.

Railway privatisation failed and now we see that under the owner of the government this company is worsening its services day by day.

Finalizing the Airport in Berlin has now 4 Years overdue and the end is not visible.

Internet connection weak, what gives disandwantages for businesses.

Klimat target achivement are in big danger and with monopolists it will not imrove. I would really apreciate, if there were a few guys in politic, fighting agains this damage of taxes and competetivenes for the location Germany.

It is necessary for the German politicians to improve. A good leader guides his team to success.

This is at present time not visible in Germany.

The exchange of businesses between RWE and Eon is the way to a monopolistic energy supply system

Cooperation between companies and universities are a precondition for satisfaction on both sides

We find companies claiming, to get students, who are not prepared for their jobs and universities are in respect of their research activities, to strong in focusing on themselves and not on the needs of.

Let us define the aspects, needed, to achieve sustainable development:

The knowledge of our society is doubling all 3 to 5 years. This causes consequently a continuous change of products, forms of living styles and working styles and has influence to the whole society.

Climate change and CO2 reduction and the different ways to approach this issues, are an example, how things are developing. In all cases, we have three elements to look upon: Science, Economy and Society represented by politics.Science, Economy and Society have to work seamless together, if we would like to achieve satisfying living conditions. As closer all parties are working together, as better will be the outcome.

Now, I come to the special role of the universities. The universities are doing research and are developing science. On universities, young people study and build up their capabilities.

For industry and companies, the universities are source of two important elements: research results and skilled people. On this slide, we see how collaboration between university, society and companies should look like.

For companies it should be a high interest, to keep a good collaboration with the universities.

What are the possibilities to collaborate with universities?

I listed here only a few possibilities:

– giving internship places for students

– giving topics for master thesis and help working on this subjects

– giving research contracts to the universities.

– Participation on research projects with more than one university and other companies

– Companies can give lessons about practical experience (giving guest lectures)

– The universities have some equipment, what companies can use from time to time (electron beam

   microscope, laser welding, …)

– and so on

This brings a win-win-situation for the university, for the students and the companies.

This kind of collaboration helps very much, to align the direction the universities are working with the practical need of the companies.

There is always one claim from the companies:

The flexibility and the readiness for new solutions and the speed, is not always satisfying in working together with the universities.

For this the targets for the universities and the companies needs alignment.

Let us conclude:

For all companies the sustainable development is necessary. For this, the companies need excellent people and should get input from research results.

Access to these elements, companies can find by good collaboration with the universities.

Close collaboration between companies and universities brings benefits to both sides.

It is necessary to synchronize speed and interests of all parties.

In a continues changing environment, parties have to work close together, to assure; they are satisfying the demand of their customers. Universities and companies are both, customer and supplier, for each other.

Industry 4.0, an overview and definition

Let us start to define, what we understand under industry 4.0.

We define it as the 4th industrial revolution and it describes not only a kind of production organization, it describes also new products and new lifestyles. All this will be influenced by industry 4.0. Let us remember about the industrial revolutions before:

  • The first industrial revolution was driven by the invention of the steam engine. With this invention agricultural production and industrial mass production started
  • The second industrial revolution took place between 1870 and 1914 and is also known as the technological revolution. Invention of electricity and the mass production by Henry Ford have been important events.
  • The third industrial revolution has taken place between 1970 und 1980. It is often called the digital revolution. PLCs, Computers and the Internet have been developed and the analogue world became digital.

The fourth industrial revolution we are shaping now. Overall connectivity and artificial intelligent, powerful computers,are a precondition for this.

Due to this developing Trends, we see a lot of rapidly developing areas. Here we see again: we are not only talking about production. IoT (internet of things) Smart cities, smart products and services, smart devices, robots and cyber physical systems will not be placed in production only, it will be placed in our products and services, we are using every day.

But if this products, organisations and services will impact the live of the whole community, we should work out the salient issues.  In the picture below you find on the left side the issues, we work on and on the right side the issues we must consider, to get a readiness of the society and the politic for industry 4.0.

I have since about 4 years a watch, measuring some basic parameters of my body and gives me the possibility to track some activities, which in my opinion are helpful to stay healthy. Until today, I have nearly daily discussions about the sense of this device and what it really improves on my live conditions. I feel better, to know these parameters and get motivated, to set myself targets and try to rich them.

I use voice programms to write notices and minutes during driving in the car and I use Alexa at home to entertain me and control subjects. A lot of people are sceptically about these products.

Smart grids to bring the diversified energy systems together or just in time traffic announcements, as well as the information about free parking places in the town, are subjects, I like to use, because they are improving my quality of live.

But these statements are improving conditions for me. I believe, the way, to convince the bigger share of the society that these developments are improving quality of live, will take a lot of efforts for explanations.

Because, most people are thinking by the name “industry 4.0” on production only, let us also start with a view in production.

The picture above shows some elements, which are standards in a smart factory.

By using intelligent smart routing, customer orders are timely correct planed for production and the planning is considering an efficient manufacturing process. All operations planning is linked up to make it possible, to plan for an overall optimum. Predictive maintenance assures predictability of the stability for machines and processes. To define the role of people in the process becomes important, to assure, the advantages of the systems are really used.

In manufacturing are normally high investments involved and often a proper engineering knowledge is available. Due to this conditions, Industry 4.0 is most advanced in production at present time.

But the advantages of connectivity and with the availability of a lot of data, much more areas are becoming early adopters.

Using Big Data analysis and implementing more and more Artificial Intelligence (AI), all areas, shown in the above picture, will benefit.

Manufacturing becomes more flexible, medical diagnoses become more reliable, transportation will use the most efficient solution and services are not any more office-hour depending.

Connectivity and Big Data are the enabler to Industry 4.0 an they are already available on an advanced level today. Let us have a deeper insight in the role of big data:

The picture above shows that we have a lot of possibilities to bring the data together, especially if we are using Hadoop. The problem is, to be aware, what impact a data analysis can cause on the data sources and data owners.

What is a data scientist?

What is the character of big data?

How classic data explodes: really big In the picture below you can see the best-known examples

For big data storage, it is preferable to put your data in a data lake.

What does it take, to make a data lake sustainable?

Is it possible to govern such a think? How do people contribute to this in a real way?

Can you think of an example functional healthy Data Lake that last for a while?

Here is an example for an answer:

We must care on data governance principles, if we would gain the biggest advantage out of it.

For data storage is still a big discussion ongoing: Hadoop or no Hadoop

For some corporate internal data there may be a database also a solution. If a lot of data from different sources are necessary, the Hadoop is the by fare cheapest solution.

Industry 4.0 will change a lot of conditions in our daily live. With Industry 4.0 we will get personalized services and personalized products.

Production will become prepared, to produce the personalized products in reasonable time. But also, the connectivity to enable smart grids for energy distribution and storage as well as the possibilities for mobility and smart cities are now prepared.

Industry 4.0 will bring a lot of changes. Here we have the task, to use it in the beneficial way for everyone.

Balance score Card

Like in several articles before already explained, is a company defined by its processes. If we would like to be able to define these processes properly, it is necessary, to have targets defined. Someone could now say: that is easy, a company has always the target, to earn money, that means to achive a resonable EBIT. For a lot of funktions this target is too abstract. Now, it was necessary, to develop a tool that enables to reach the EBIT target.

A tool to do so, is the balanced score card: The Balanced Scorecard (or balance score card) is a strategic performance measurement model which is developed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton. Its objective is to translate an organization’s mission and vision into actual (operational) actions (strategic planning).

These should be clustered in the categories:

1.           Financial

2.           Customer

3.           Internal business processes

4.           Learning and growth

What is a proposed process, to develop this Balanced Score Card? The Balanced Score Card is in some companies called „strategy map “. I like this name, because it shows to everyone in the company:

1.           What is the strategy of the company

2.           What I or my department should do, to support the strategy

3.           Which projects we must put in place, to reach our strategical targets.

The strategy map will be taken most seriously, if it is developer by the whole management team.

What could be a road map to develop the “strategy map”?

1. bring the whole management team together to explain the need of a “strategy map” and ask for their active involvement

2. Explain the development process (be carefull: explain clearly the Need of all steps. It must be avoided that everybody has a final strategy map in mind and the intermediat steps are only taken, because the process is described like that)

3. Give enough room for discussion. This is key to assure that afterwards the commitment of the management team is assured.

Strategy:

Consider the questions below as you formulate your business strategy in preparation for doing a Balanced Scorecard.

Voice of Stakeholder/FINANCIAL (growth, profitability, cash flow, return on investment)
What does our target market want that they are not currently getting?  
What innovative products, features, benefits or services could we add?                                                                                                                                                                   
How do we plan to get more customers?  
How do we plan to sell more to each customer?  
What new market opportunities can we exploit?  
What other strategies would increase growth and profitability?  
Voice of the Customer (high quality, fast or on-time, good value, pleasurable experience)
How can we make better quality products than our competitors?  
How can we deliver faster than the competition?  
What can we do to reduce cost or give more value to customers than our competitors?  
How can we give the customer a more pleasurable buying experience?  
How do we plan to retain customers longer—to create loyal customers?  
What is our Unique Selling Proposition (USP)?  
Internal Processes (effective business systems and operational excellence)
What systems/processes must we excel at?  
What new systems or processes would add value to the market and attract new customers?  
What new system or process would rock our industry?  
What systems would we need to become a “world- class” organization?  
Learning and Growth/Voice of Employee (learning, growth and employee retention)
How do we plan to attract the best employees?               
How do we plan to retain loyal employees?  
How do we provide a great place to work?  
How do we foster individual growth and learning?  
How do we reward or compensate performance?  

 State your specific business strategies within each of the four Balanced Scorecard perspectives.

Financial Strategies (growth, profitability, cash flow, return on investment)
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
Customer Strategies (high quality, fast or on-time, good value, pleasurable experience)
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
Internal processes Strategies (effective business systems and operational excellence)
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
Learning and Growth Strategies (learning, growth and employee retention)
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .
We will . . .

Indicate the “what” and “why,” not the “how.”

Balanced Scorecard

  Below is an example of a Balanced Scorecard developed by an ambitious home builder.

Financial Perspective (How can we increase growth, profitability, cash flow, and return on investment?)

Objectives Measurement Target Action Plan
Increase sales growth Number of new starts per month 10 new starts Expand geographic market/open new office
Improve gross margin Sales minus cost of goods sold/net sales 55% Build homes faster with greater margins
Increase profitability Percent Income from Operations 10% Reduce construction cycle time and costs

Customer Perspective (How can we create product value, market differentiation, “killer customer care,” and raving fans?)

Objectives Measurement Target Action Plan
Customer satisfaction End of job survey/ number of complaints 90% satisfaction/2 complaints per home Create Internet communication system
Create “Dream Home” design packages Percent/frequency package is chosen 80% of houses sold are “Dream” packages Create floor plan and interior/exterior packages
High quality homes Points/quality rating of subcontractors Subcontractor must maintain 90 point avrg. of 100 possible points Create a “quality” score sheet for each sub and provide job feedback
Fast completion of homes Average days to complete 30 days from building permit to close Intense scheduling system/ reduce delay between steps

Internal Processes Perspective (What systems can we create or elevate to achieve operational excellence?)

Objectives Measurement Target Action Plan
Fast start—minimum  time from contract to building permit Days in process Submit app. to city within 5 working days from customer contract Reduce upfront interface and preparation  time with customer
Improve sales lead generation system Number of sales leads 50 leads per month Open another sales office in new region
Effectively schedule sub-contractors Percent of work started at scheduled time 75% of jobs started within 1 day of schedule Purchase BuildStar management software

Learning and Growth Perspective (How can we promote learning, innovation, and the personal growth and retention of valued people?)

Objectives Measurement Target Action Plan
Subcontractor certification Number of subs that are certified 75% of subs are certified Create subcontractor certification program
Improve staff building-process skills Number of skill sets times number of staff 80% completed Create a staff training program

Charts to develop a Balanced Scorecard

Company Name: ________________________________________  Date: _____________

Financial Perspective (How can we increase growth, profitability, cash flow, and return on investment?)

Objectives Measurement Target Action Plan
       
       
       
       
       

Customer Perspective (How can we create product value, market differentiation, “killer customer care,” and raving fans?)

Objectives Measurement Target Action Plan
       
       
       
       
       

Internal Processes Perspective (What systems can we create or elevate to achieve operational excellence?)

Objectives Measurement Target Action Plan
       
       
       
       
       

Learning and Growth Perspective (How can we promote learning, innovation, and the personal growth and retention of valued people?)

Objectives Measurement Target Action Plan
       
       
       
       
       

After putting the strategy statements in the four groups, the critical success factors can be defined.

For the analytic of the balanced score card can be done a wallpaper, which objective is promoting other objectives. At the end, the biggest power should be brought to EBIT improvement or EBIT backup.

At the end the action planes have to be scheduled in a way that the organisation can deal with the actions that the sequence of different actions is senseful and the development of the company is fast enough following market requirements and improvement for the companies position in the market.

Another possibility is, to develop the actions in the sequence shown below. In the discussion with a team, these headlines keep the team better on the discussion about the development of value drivers. This sequence is assuring that not immediately actions will be defined, which have no real connection to the strategical goals.

For example, the following formulations could be found for one strategical goal: Wie would like to have a 20% market share.

Now we must ask: what are the critical success factors? This could be for example in a price sensitive market: we must become cost leader.

Out of this we can easily derive the value drivers, like fix cost, design to cost, ….

To reach the KPIs for the value drivers, we can than define projects, on which different teams of the company can work.  

My experience to work with balanced score cards is extremely good. To work it out and to follow the projects, derived out of the value drivers, is a good method, to form the management team and to make them work on common targets for the company. On disturbances to rich the targets, the whole management team was reacting. In my opinion it is a “must” have for every company.

Climate change impact on human health part2

In part 1 we described the mechanism of climate change in general and derived out of this some impacts to human health. With this article we would like to somehow complete the picture and to draw out a conclusions about human health, derived from the climate change. The part1 we closed with the description of waterborne diseases, which will grow with further climate change. Let us now go to a subject, which is also water related.

Causes of Algal and Cyanobacterial Blooms

Algae and cyanobacteria behave like plants: they absorb carbon dioxide and release the oxygen that we need to survive on Earth. However, they can also produce toxins that are dangerous to wildlife and swimmers. Warmer ocean temperatures and heavier precipitation, which increases the delivery of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous to coastal waters and lakes, can promote the growth of algae and cyanobacteria. When conditions are right, algal blooms occur.

One of the key ingredients for a harmful algal bloom is nitrogen. The map below shows where nitrogen is deposited across the Mississippi river basin in the United States. The heavy use of nitrogen-based fertilizer to grow food, as well as highly concentrated livestock operations in the upper Midwest, deliver nitrogen into the Mississippi river. There, it ultimately reaches the Gulf of Mexico, where it can fuel harmful algal blooms. This scenario occurs wherever agriculture and rivers co-exist, which means it can – and does – occur on every continent except Antarctica.

The Mississippi River watershed covers nearly half of the United States, including substantial amounts of farmland that contribute large amounts of nitrogen from fertilizer. Agricultural runoff flowing into river basins and ultimately to the sea and fuelling harmful algal blooms is occurring around the world.

A very popular example is the damage of the Great Barrier Reef near Australia. It is the biggest reef we know on earth and contributes to a diverse population on fish. It is a fact almost beyond comprehension: In the summer of 2015, more than 2 billion corals lived in the Great Barrier Reef. Half of them are now dead.

Algal and cyanobacterial toxins cause a range of illness in humans and wildlife. Toxins can cause disease when swallowed or when they touch the skin. If ingested, these toxins most often cause headaches, vomiting, diarrhoea, and numbness or tingling. They are also toxic to wildlife.

What are conditions, which make Algal Bloom developing? Recent research has found that warming oceans have expanded the range of the northern Atlantic and Pacific oceans in which harmful algal blooms can occur.

Recent research has also shown that ocean acidification may promote even more abundant and toxic algal blooms.

Malaria’s Impact

Ever been bitten by a mosquito? Depending on where you were when that happened the bite could have been merely an itchy nuisance or the beginnings of a life-threatening disease. Malaria, a parasitic disease transmitted through the bite of a mosquito, is a major global health challenge. Each year, more than 200 million people – mostly in lowland tropical areas – are estimated to contract malaria and more than 400,000 people, mostly children younger than 5, die. Almost half of the Earth’s population currently live in areas where malaria can be transmitted.

The impact of many diseases is measured in DALYs: Disability-Adjusted Life-Years. The greater the DALYs, the worse things are. The map below shows the DALYs associated with malaria round the world.

Map: Malaria DALYs per 100,000 pop

The impact of the climate change of the life cycle of mosquitos and Malaria, we explain in the following part.

Mosquito life cycle

The reproduction of malarial parasites involves stages in mosquitoes and in humans (including periods of time in liver cells and blood cells). You can see quick overviews of the mosquito life cycle above and malaria life cycle below. Note that the mosquitoes lay their eggs in water. The parasites have a lifecycle that includes time inside the human body and inside a mosquito. The time the parasite spends developing in the mosquito, where it is exposed to outdoor temperatures, is known as the extrinsic incubation period.

The following diagrams show the ideal temperatures for the life of mosquitos. This gives an indication, how and where Malaria can spread out with increasing temperatures on earth.

The optimal development temperature for mosquitos and malaria will spread out with rising earth temperature to high land regions and regions, in which mosquitos cannot live today due to the lower temperature.

Malaria transmission factors

Nutrition

Greenhouse gases will affect crop yields through several pathways as illustrated in the diagram below. The extensive connections between crop yields and greenhouse gas emissions make nutritional outcomes a key to understanding the health effects of climate change. Lower Crop Yields Flowchart

Heat, Ozone, and Crops

More heat also will drive additional ground level ozone production, and ozone can impair plant growth and damage leaves.

The bar graphs below show estimated yield changes between 2000 and 2050 due to warming temperatures with climate change and/or ground level ozone.

The pie graphs show the percent of the world total production by country or region of each of major food crops.

Change in crop yield

The above picture shows, the crop yield will become strongly reduced, in the tropic regions, were today we have a dense population. This will provoke that people have the need to move to other regions. These changes will have health impact due to the movements. migration and due to change of nutrition.     

Salinization of Coastal Groundwater

Sea level rise makes salinization of coastal groundwater more likely. As sea level rises, the pressure of salt water to intrude through rock and earth into aquifers rises, which drives salty water into fresh water.

How sea water rise salinizes ground water!

CO2 and Crops

Experiments have demonstrated that exposure to elevated carbon dioxide levels can substantially decrease the nutrient content of staple crops.

1.4 billion children aged 1-5 and women of childbearing age live in countries where iron deficiency prevalence is >20%. In these countries, the iron supply could fall by 3.8% based upon the foods consumed in their current diets and the detrimental effects of higher carbon dioxide levels on iron content of crops, as illustrated below.

Percent Change in Plant Nutrition between 380ppm CO2 and 550ppm CO2

Fishes disappear due to overfishing but also due to acid and to hot water. They are going to colder regions.

All the above shown changes in the diet of people can provoke nutritional diseases.

Nutritional diseases are conditions that effect the human body due to its food intake. Their strongest and most widespread effects are on children, the elderly and women of child bearing age. Each nutrient has a different set of diseases that can be induced by over- or under-consumption.

Nutritional diseases are sometimes referred to as nutritional deficiencies or malnutrition, but this overlooks the (comparatively new) issue of overnutrition, which can lead to obesity.

Macronutrients include carbohydrates, fiber, fat, essential fatty acids and protein. Protein deficiencies can lead to a variety of issues, from kwashiorkor to birth defects. An excess of protein may lead to increased kidney stone formation.

Micronutrients are primarily vitamins and minerals. Many have well documented and specific effects caused by deficiency: low vitamin C causes scurvy; low calcium causes osteoporosis. Others have broader effects: low zinc intake can result in a broad variety of issues from depressed growth to skin lesions to diarrhoea. There are often connections between various nutrients: for instance, it is difficult for the human body to absorb calcium without vitamin D.

Some micronutrients (like vitamin C) can be tolerated in doses much larger than what is needed by the body. Others (like iron) can cause severe issues in overdose, especially in children. Taking in more micronutrients than the minimum the body needs does generally not show any health benefits. The following diagram shows the connections which provoked migration and the health impact

The United Nations estimates that an unprecedented number of people – more than 65 million – have currently had to move against their will from their homes. About 22 million have moved outside their home countries and are refugees and the vast majority are hosted in developing nations. About 40 million are internally displaced within their home countries and are so called “internally displaced persons” or IDPs.

Each year since 2008, more than 20 million people have been forced to migrate due to extreme weather.

Conclusion

The already visible effects of climate change impacts the health of a lot of population already. Infection, migration,  impact on crop yields, water shortages and wildfires are jeopardising the health of more and more people and we come closer to the point that we have not any more enough healthy food for the world population.

What is most importand: the climate change and the increasing impact of CO2, ozone and particulate matter has already influenced our living conditions a lot. It is mandatory, to react now consequently. We anyhow will only be able to slow down the climate change. It is hard for me to believe we can stop it completely. Nevertheless, we are talking about, to assure several 100 years live for humans on earth. But with every degree temperature rise and rising CO2 emissions, the living conditions are becoming more and more challanging.

To show these interactions was the intention of the two articles.

Climate change impact on human health part1

Even if some politician on this world still ignore the fact of climate change, it takes place. Let us short recapitulate the effects.

Earth has several gases in its atmosphere that trap heat, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). These three gases, and others, retain heat and make the climate of the earth what it is, and the one in which all life that exists depends on for survival.

Many forces contribute to the Earth’s average overall temperature, including…

    Its orbit around the sun, which is more elliptical than circular.

    How hot the sun is – its temperature varies over time.

    How reflective the Earth’s surface is (white stuff, like ice caps, reflect light).

…but the temperature of our planet is most substantially influenced by the amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere.

When greenhouse gases trap heat, they raise the temperature of air, but also of water, and especially water in the oceans.

Where is global warming going?

Greenhouse gas make that we have higher temperatures and the air contains more water. This brings heavier snow and rain falls.

But carbon dioxide has other effects on our planet that may be just as important for our health as its effects on the climate.

About 30% of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere from human activities, such as burning fossil fuels, is absorbed into the world’s oceans. As it gets absorbed, it produces carbonic acid, which makes the world’s oceans more acidic.

Plants breathe in carbon dioxide and breathe out oxygen. When concentrations of carbon dioxide in the air rise, plants change in ways that have consequences for health.

The largest modifier of the health impacts of climate change is human behaviour, including the policies we create to protect health from climate change. It is important to understand the three main ways through which human action can reduce the effect of climate change on human beings:

–             Through adaptation policies and actions to protect health from climate impacts (the black  area in the graph below).

–             Through mitigation, such as reducing emissions in the first place (the dark blue area).

–             Through health co-benefits – reaping health gains from climate-friendly policies and    individual behaviour (the light blue area).

Heat related health issues

Most people enjoy a warm summer’s day, but even for those who love sun and heat the most, very hot temperatures can be dangerous. In recent years, severe heatwaves around the world have led to the deaths of tens of thousands of people External link, either from the effects of heat itself or because of air pollution that heatwaves can generate. In the future, heat-related illnesses are likely to get even worse.

Heat stroke and heat exhaustion will become much more common as temperature rise, especially for those who live in tropical regions or who work outdoor. These has serious repercussions for the elderly and for the obese, who have more difficulties shedding excess heat. People at risk with heart failure and individuals with diabetes are also at increased risk.

Human cooling mechanism:

Ozone

By burning fossil fuels, we emit ozone to the environment.

Inhaling ozone is bad for our lungs. When ozone contacts our lungs, it causes inflammation that makes it hard to breathe for all people, but especially those with existing lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Ozone is formed when by-products of fossil fuel combustion, including oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are exposed to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, as is shown in the figure below.

Wildfires and particulate matter

Because climate change causes heatwaves and more severe droughts, it creates conditions favourable to wildfires. During a particularly hot and dry spell in eastern Europe in 2010, thousands of fires burned an area of forest roughly the size of Indiana (38,600 square miles or ~100,000 square kilometres) burned. The smoke from the fires, however, would have stretched from San Francisco to Chicago. The air pollution produced by the fires killed tens of thousands of people.

When forests burn, they produce smoke that is comprised of many toxic substances, as shown in the image below.

Harmful substances in smoke from wildfires includes acrolein (a lung irritant), carbon monoxide (which can be fatal at high concentrations); formaldehyde, benzene, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs (all of which can cause cancer); and particulate matter (PM).

PM2.5 refers to particulate matter that is 2.5 microns in diameter or smaller in size. You may also see references to PM10, 10 microns in size, which is considered less harmful but can still be dangerous.

Very fine beach sand is about 90 microns in size. Human hair is about 50-70 microns in size. PM ten is under 10 microns, and PM two point five is under 2.5 microns.

PM2.5 is about 1/20th the width of a human hair. Research on PM2.5 has clearly demonstrated that when people breathe it in, it can be deadly, particularly by causing heart attacks and strokes. Worldwide, PM exposures is responsible for millions of deaths each year. PM exposure has also been associated with preterm birth, lung cancer, and a host of other diseases. Exposure to air pollution is the 4th highest-ranking risk factor for death in the world.

Allergies and Asthma

Pollen is a major contributor to seasonal allergies and can cause asthma attacks. Warming temperatures have substantially lengthened the season during which plants that produce allergenic pollen can survive.

At the same time, higher carbon dioxide concentrations in the air are contributing to greater pollen output from ragweed plants.

The pollen production per ragweed plant was 5 grams in the year 1900, 12.5 grams in the year 2000, and will be over 20 grams in the year 2060.

Figure courtesy of Harvard. Data from Rising CO2 and pollen production of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), a known allergy-inducing species: implications for public health.

The data shown in the graph are based upon experiments in a lab in which ragweed plants were grown under different carbon dioxide concentrations (280, 370 or 600ppm). The higher the carbon dioxide concentration, the more pollen was produced. Remember, today the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is well above 400ppm, which means the amount of pollen produced by ragweed plants may be twice than that at the start of the 20th century.

Other allergenic plants are influenced by elevated carbon dioxide, including poison ivy. Poison ivy has been shown to grow larger and produce more allergenic urshiol (the compound in poison ivy responsible for causing an allergic reaction) when grown under higher carbon dioxide concentrations

The Basics of Vector-borne Disease

Insects are cold blooded creatures (or “ectotherms”), and so must seek out warmer or cooler environments to regulate their body temperatures. The intensification of the water cycle with climate change is particularly relevant to mosquito reproduction which occurs in water. The parasites and viruses carried by insect vectors also are temperature sensitive.

Rainfall can substantially influence risk of vector-borne disease. Research on Dengue in Guangzhou China, Taiwan and elsewhere documents that rainfall is associated with dengue outbreaks. Rain creates pools of water that can be breeding habitat for juvenile mosquitos. However, too much rain can wash away these pools, and with them, the developing mosquitos.

Somewhat counterintuitively, droughts may also promote vector-borne disease outbreaks. During droughts, people may be more likely to use containers to store water, and mosquitos can breed in these containers.

Warming combined with changes in the water cycle have raised concern about how climate change may influence the spread of vector-borne diseases.

Here we will focus on malaria in the next article. Let’s move now on to waterborne diseases.

Waterborne Disease

Greenhouse gas emissions arguably have equal if not greater relevance to the distribution and spread of waterborne diseases as vector-borne diseases around the world. From Vibrio bacteria that cause cholera and other diseases, to ciguatera fish poisoning and shellfish poisoning and harmful algal blooms, warming temperatures and more intense precipitation may favour waterborne disease outbreaks.

The graphic below illustrates how climate related events, such as heavy precipitation, can contribute to outbreaks of waterborne disease. Rainfall washes pathogens contained in animal and human excrement into sewer systems and eventually into local water bodies where water may be drawn from for drinking or crop irrigation. Warmer temperatures may promote growth of pathogens.

Cities and Sewers

Some cities have drain pipes that carry stormwater run-off and sewage together. These so-called combined sewer systems can be found in many cities around the world, particularly those that had systems built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. At the time of their construction, the amount of sewage and rainfall were less than today. Engineers accounted for the potential of population growth but not necessarily for the heavier downpours occurring with climate change.

When the combined sewer pipes reach capacity, the sewer systems have outfall pipes that drain into local waterbodies to prevent sewage backing up into peoples’ homes and onto streets (see figure below).

Research on cities and regions in the United States with combined sewers may be more likely to have E. coli contaminated water and higher rates of emergency room visits after extreme rainfall events. (For further studies see Patz et al. 2008 External link, Kleidorfer et al. 2009. 2009  and Nilsen et al. 2011).

Even cities with combined sewer systems, however, have been able to substantially reduce discharges of untreated sewage through a variety of actions. These include planting more vegetation and reducing the number of paved surfaces (which keeps more storm run-off out of the sewer system). Sound familiar? It should – these are the same interventions that prevent urban heat islands and so they provide a double dividend to health.

Regardless of sewer system design, heavier rainfall has been shown to promote outbreaks of waterborne diseases, including hepatitis A, cryptosporidiosis, Vibrios, and leptospirosis as well as enteric pathogens, such as E. coli that causes diarrheal disease.

In parts of the world without sewer systems heavier rains also can promote waterborne disease outbreaks but so too can a lack of rain. Infectious pathogens may be more likely to contaminate freshwater supplies when, for instance, water is scarce.

Summary

This article shows a part of the health problems we have, and which will rise by the climate change. In the next article, which will be published within the next two weeks, we would like to complete the picture and to draw some conclusion out of it.

IT is needed in all our businesses and IT provides additional business opportunities

In this article I would like to develop an overview about the IT technologies, which are available and are on the way to be introduced in our day to day businesses. We will show the necessity and the possibilities to introduce this IT solutions in all businesses and its positive impact. Than we will show, how the businesses will change with this IT technologies and derive out of this the risks, which will rise, for businesses, which deny this implementation of IT technologies

Let us follow the structure in the above shown picture.

First, we should look, if we use the IT elements, which exists already since years, but are further developing, sufficient and adjust our businesses accordingly. Than we should discuss the opportunities, which grow with the new technologies and last but not least, we will discuss, what new business models are possible now. This should make us think about our placement in the business structure and give us the possibilities to decide, if we have to change our business model or if it is still stable.

1. Add-ons to our present business models

Let us go step by step through the structure, given in the picture in the introduction. There is first the discussion about ERP systems. Like the name is saying: Enterprise resource planning system. No enterprise can exist without making a reliable resource planning. No customer order can be confirmed, if I have not checked the availability of the needed resources.

Irrespective of whether the company is a multi-national, multimillion-dollar organization, non-profit, or a small company with single digit million turnover, the goal of system selection is to source a system that can provide functionality for all of the business processes; that will get complete user acceptance; management approval and, most importantly, can provide significant return on investment for the shareholders.

Since the mid-1970s, when there was widespread introduction of computer packages into leading companies to assist in material requirements planning, software companies have striven, and for the most part succeeded, to create packages that assist in all aspects of running a business from manufacturing; supply chain management; human resources; through to financials. This led to the evolution of ERP Systems.

Today you have a big choice of different ERP systems and you can even decide to let them run in a cloud (hosted by a cloud provider), if you use open source software or licensed. With this wide field of opportunities, it is even for small and medium size companies possible, to use a professional ERP system. Especially in B2B businesses and in retail businesses, it is required by the customers, to work with proper ERP. It is affordable now for everybody.

Than we come to social medias. Meanwhile it is absolute necessary for a company, to be present in social networks. I am still struggling, in which networks it is necessary to be present an in which you can allow you, not to be active. Let us go to some statistics:

Working with this statistics, we have also to consider, in which regions we are looking for contacts.

Even if WatsApp has the most user, you will be not very successful, if you do not have WeChat in China.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We must be aware, how large the community, using social media already is. To become successful, we can not deny the social medias

A company should at least have a profile in the most important social medias. For some B2B customers it may be not to important for their customers, but is important, to develop its employer branding.

Than let us come to the EDI issue. Keying in data manually is one of the biggest uncertainties in industrial supply chains.

Electronic data interchange (EDI) is the concept of businesses communicating electronically certain information that was traditionally communicated on paper. The two classic examples of such information are purchase orders and invoices. Standards for EDI exist to facilitate parties transacting such instruments without having to make special arrangements.

EDI provides a technical basis for automated commercial “conversations” between two entities, either internal or external. The term EDI encompasses the entire electronic data interchange process, including the transmission, message flow, document format, and software used to interpret the documents. However, EDI standards describe the rigorous format of electronic documents, and the EDI standards were designed by the implementers, initially in the Automotive industry, to be independent of communication and software technologies. EDI can be transmitted using any methodology agreed to by the sender and recipient. This includes a variety of technologies, including modem (asynchronous and synchronous), FTP, e-mail, HTTP, AS1, AS2, AS4 etc. It is important to differentiate between the EDI documents and the methods for transmitting them. When they compared the synchronous protocol 2400 bit/s modems, CLEO devices, and value-added networks used to transmit EDI documents to transmitting via the Internet, some people equated the non-Internet technologies with EDI and predicted erroneously that EDI itself would be replaced along with the non-Internet technologies. These non-internet transmission methods are being replaced by Internet protocols such as FTP, HTTP, telnet, and e-mail, but the EDI documents themselves remain.

As of 2002, Walmart have pushed the AS2 for EDI. [4] Because of its significant presence in the global supply chain, AS2 have become a commonly adopted approach for EDI.

And like EDI is a safe communication tool, so is skype and videoconferencing a meanwhile a standard communication tool. In a global acting world and in global shaped supply chains, it is necessary to have standard IT possibilities to connect and to transfer data to commonly used data rooms.

Skyp, video conferencing and using globally internally and externally changeable data rooms are mandatory for a globally working company. What ever is used, it should be based on a software, in which I can invite practically everybody, who is connected with his computer to the internet.

Due to the worldwide rolled out standards, this demand is easy to fulfil. And it is easy to fulfil for everybody the demand of the above-mentioned solutions, with the offered …aaS (as a Service) solutions. Every company can shape its one IT environment, even if they do not have any IT know-how. You can get IaaS (infrastructure as a service), PaaS (platform as a service) and SaaS (software as a service) solutions. Depending on the economical result you can choose to give everything to extern or to do part of the business within your company. In this respect it is also necessary, to assure a safe data connection from everywhere to your data. This keeps you and your people workable, independent where you are.

And finally, in this area, we should mention platforms, which should be used, to assure to stay with the right contracts in the market. The best examples are the e-buy platforms. On this platform you can place your offers and you can ask for offers from suppliers. In my opinion a “must” to assure competitiveness. And there are much more possibilities, which every company has to check regularly.

Until this point, we have discussed applications only, which should be really standard or at least be analysed by the business management. Depending on the businesses, it is possible, some businesses need less intense application of the one or the other subject. In my opinion it is not possible, to deny this elements without checking the influence of your business.

2. Opportunities, driven by newer technology

In this chapter I have listed technologies and application fields, which can be used already today. It is strongly depending on the business model, which impact these technologies can have.

With our todays capabilities of computer, we have great possibilities to analyse big data volumes in brief time. The big data development has achieved meanwhile a status, which gives the possibilities to analyse big data volumes continuously. Such a continuously monitoring gives a good basis for decision making and risk evaluation.

Big data analysis becomes especially valuable, if a lot of data are available. This becomes better and better, as more sensors we adapt to the internet of things.

How the internet of thing (IoT) works?

If we have in all products the above-mentioned sensors, we are confronted with the question: What to do with this data?

Here are some fields of opportunities, to use this data in daily life and to make life easier

You name it and you will have it in IoT.

And here is now the strategical decision of companies needed: Are existing companies ready to take over the new business models, arising of the table above table or will we have for the application of these services new companies.

However, the decision of the companies, how to place themselves in the market, is now necessary. The train towards the IoT is already on the race and the important places in this train are assigned now.

In the following picture you can see the growth of the word population in the past and with some forecast and you se the development and the forecast for the IoT.

We have already several times more sensors and devises on the IoT than people on earth.

The new businesses will mainly have this development as a basis. We are in the middle of the time to define the business models, using this data source.

All this is accompanied with progresses in artificial intelligence. I am not sure, how much we can already call resent developments: artificial intelligence.

Nevertheless, the progress we can find in these developments are remarkable. This development can make our life much more convenient. We have in this respect also to see the risks, coming up with this development. In the book: Superintelligence, Paths, Danger, Strategy wrote Nick Bostrom (Oxford University 2014) what risks are arising, if the wrong people are first in developing a super intelligence. It is in my opinion a very serious written book, which we should keep in account in further developing superintelligences. But, however we set up the strategy, a lot of developments in that direction are on the way and we have to use them for the services, to utelize the values from the IoT.

IaaS, PaaS and SaaS are already available today. Practically it is already today possible to by services, instead of doing and investing for the own company. This makes it possible that everybody can participate.

Depending on the degree of services, the customer is buying, the direct control of the customer is limited

In the field of the elements, described in chapter 2, the companies must urgendly define their position, now.

3. Development of new business models.

Cloud services, central databases and Blockchain should be our subjects in this chapter. I brought these three subjects in this chapter together, even if this are not modern technologies. To utilize this

technologies on a global scale, we do not have usable policies in place.

Let us start with describing the cloud services:

From these services we can make a SWOT analysis:

The SWOT analysis shows clear the deficits for cloud solutions. In a lot of countries, it is not possible to store bookkeeping data abroad. Even if for some companies the bookkeeping is done abroad, the data storage has to be assured in the country, in which the company has its registration.

At present time, central databases and cloud solutions must exist in parallel. To come to future orientated business models, it is necessary, for the policy makers, to look for more suitable policies.

However, the central database and the cloud have the issue, to become target of cyber-attacks.

Blockchain technology has some key differentiators from databases.

A blockchain is a write-only data structure, where new entries get appended onto the end of the ledger. Every new block gets appended to the block chain by linking to the previous block’s ‘hash’ . There are no administrator permissions within a blockchain that allow editing or deleting of data.

In a relational database, data can be easily modified or deleted. Typically, there are database administrators who may make changes to any part of the data and/or its structure. Additionally, blockchains were designed for decentralized applications, whereas relational databases, in general, were originally designed for centralized applications, where a single entity controls the data.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are some examples, which are advisable to work on with a Blockchain technology:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Out of this we can show, how to decide, which system should be applied.

Looking to the before shown examples, we see, the Blockchain can influence a lot of businesses and will change them drastically. Especially subjects like supply chain management, the standard bank processes and the overview about medical results, are very practical examples to be improvable with the Blockchain technology.

Blockchain needs still the proposal for business opportunities and then the helpful policies from the governments. Due to these difficulties, I put it in the chapter: Development of new business models.

4. Summery

In my opinion, the people, who have knowledge about the technologies are not precise enough mentioning it towards the politic. It is necessary to develop business models in this area, because it will have considerable influence on our societies. The change of a society is always long lasting. For this it is necessary to start in time.